OEM & ODM Manufacturer - Textile Products

One image to help you understand the trading terms.


In the global landscape of international trade, various trading terms and agreements are essential for smooth transactions and clear responsibilities between buyers and sellers. FOB, CIF, CFR, DDP, and DDU are commonly used international trade terms that define the roles, responsibilities, and risks involved in shipping and receiving goods. In this article, we will explore these terms and their significance in the world of international commerce.

  1. FOB – Free On Board:

Definition: FOB signifies that the seller is responsible for goods until they are loaded onto a vessel at the port of shipment. Once on board, the risk and responsibility shift to the buyer.

Use: Commonly used when goods are being transported via ocean or other waterways.

  1. CIF – Cost, Insurance, and Freight:

Definition: CIF includes not only the responsibility for the goods but also the cost of insurance and freight to the port of destination. The seller handles all these aspects.

Use: CIF is typical in cases where the buyer seeks a more comprehensive agreement, with the seller covering the shipment and insurance.

  1. CFR – Cost and Freight:

Definition: Similar to CIF, CFR covers the cost and freight to the port of destination, but it does not include insurance. The buyer is responsible for insurance.

Use: CFR is frequently used when the buyer wants to handle the insurance separately.

  1. DDP – Delivered Duty Paid:

Definition: DDP places the maximum responsibility on the seller. The seller is responsible for all costs, risks, and duties to deliver the goods to the buyer’s premises.

Use: DDP is commonly chosen by buyers who want to minimize their involvement in the shipping and customs process.

  1. DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid:

Definition: DDU, in contrast to DDP, requires the seller to deliver the goods to the buyer’s location but without paying import duties and taxes.

Use: DDU allows the buyer to handle customs clearance and payment of duties and taxes.


These international trade terms play a crucial role in the import and export of goods, clarifying the responsibilities and risks of both buyers and sellers. Choosing the appropriate term is essential to avoid misunderstandings and conflicts during international transactions. It’s essential for businesses to fully understand these terms and their implications to ensure that goods are shipped and received as smoothly as possible. Whether it’s FOB, CIF, CFR, DDP, or DDU, selecting the right trade term depends on the specifics of each transaction and the preferences of both parties involved. Clear and mutually agreed-upon trade terms are a cornerstone of successful international trade.